Ota et al. (2019) Tourmaline in a Mesoarchean pelagic hydrothermal system: Implications for the habitat of early life, Precambrian Research, 334, doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2019.105475. < 20191212092751-166561 > pub

Map on Earth or stone. Places and analyses are shown.

  • abstract:

    The RNA World hypothesis requires the synthesis of RNA to allow the emergence of life on Earth. Hydrothermal systems have been proposed as potential candidates for constructing complex biomolecules. However, in order to successfully form RNA, it is necessary to stabilize ribose, a RNA carbohydrate component. Borate has been found to stabilize ribose. Therefore, boron rich hydrothermal systems are important environments concerning the origin of life on Earth.
    The 3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation of the West Pilbara Superterrane, Western Australia, is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. The Formation represents a Mesoarchean pelagic hydrothermal system, which formed adjacent to an immature island arc. Fine-grained tourmaline, in addition to biogenic carbonaceous matter and spherulitic and tubular bacteriomorphs, are found in black chert. A boron-rich environment was responsible for the formation of these deposits. To explore the implications of such a boron enriched environment on microbial activity, modes of occurrence and chemical compositions of the tourmaline were examined.
    The tourmaline is schorl or dravite of the alkali tourmaline group and the boron isotope compositions range in δ11B from − 7.3 to + 2.6‰ . The tourmaline occurs in microcrystalline quartz matrix of black chert veins that cross cut a volcanic unit and also in a bedded black chert, which overlays the volcanic unit. The volcanic unit contains highly altered zones with hydrothermal veins. The associated lithologic and stratigraphic features suggest that the black chert veins were the conduits for upward moving hydrothermal fluids, which reached the sea floor. Subsequently, the volcanic unit was covered by organic matter-rich cherty sediments that in part were fed, and/or altered, by the hydrothermal fluids.
    These results suggest that the origin of boron enrichment to form Dixon Island tourmaline is not the associated sedimentary mineral assemblage, which includes diagenetic clay, low-grade metamorphic mica, and organic matter. Instead, the tourmaline was directly precipitated from hydrothermal fluid, enriched in boron. Furthermore, the hydrothermal fluids had already concentrated the boron, in the Mesoarchean pelagic system, prior to the apex of organic matter production and microbial activity. Our findings support a hypothesis that the boron-enriched hydrothermal environment aided the survival and evolution of early life.

  • doi: 10.1016/j.precamres.2019.105475
  • modified at 2020-07-31
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(a) SEM-EDS on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(b) calculation based on the ideal chemical formula on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
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(a) SEM-EDS on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(b) calculation based on the ideal chemical formula on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(c) SIMS on SIMS Cameca ims-5f
1: 1007-1_T01-1_skeletal 2: 1007-1_T02-1_core 3: 1007-1_T03-1_core 4: 1007-1_T04-1_skeletal 5: 1007-1_T05-1_core 6: 1007-1_T05-2_core 7: 1007-1_T05-3_rim 8: 1007-1_T05-4_skeletal 9: 1007-1_T06-1_skeletal 10: 1007-1_T07-1_core 11: 3815-21_T04-1_core 12: 3815-21_T06-1_rim 13: 3815-21_T07-1_core 14: 3815-21_T10-1_core 15: 3815-21_T10-2_core 16: 3815-21_T10-3_core 17: 3815-21_T11-1_rim 18: 3815-21_T13-1_core 19: 3815-21_T14-1_skeletal 20: 3815-21_T16-1_skeletal 21: 3815-21_T16-2_core 22: 3815-21_T16-3_skeletal 23: 3815-21_T17-1_core 24: 3815-21_T18-1_rim 25: 3815-21_T20-1_rim 26: 3815-21_T29-1_rim 27: 3815-21_T34-1_rim 28: 3815-2_T03-1_core 29: 3815-2_T10-1_skeletal 30: 3815-2_T12-1_core 31: 3815-2_T23-1_core 32: 3815-2_T25-1_rim 33: 3815-2_T28-1_skeletal 34: 3815-2_T28-3_core 35: 3815-2_T29-1_skeletal 36: 3815-2_T30-1_core 37: 3815-2_T32-1_rim 38: 3815-2_T39-1_core 39: 3815-2_T40-1_skeletal 40: 3815-2_T41-1_skeletal 41: 3815-2_T42-1_core 42: 3815-2_T43-1_core 43: 3815-2_T46-1_core 44: 3818-3_T02-1_core 45: 3818-3_T06-2_skeletal 46: 3818-3_T08-1_core 47: 3818-3_T13-1_core 48: 3818-3_T14-1_core 49: 7716-54_T01-1_skeletal 50: 7716-54_T02-1_skeletal 51: 7716-54_T03-1_skeletal 52: 7716-54_T04-1_core 53: 7716-54_T05-1_core 54: 7716-54_T06-1_core 55: 7716-54_T09-2_skeletal


(a) SEM-EDS on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(b) calculation based on the ideal chemical formula on JEOL JSM-7001F SEM-EDS
(c) SIMS on SIMS Cameca ims-5f
5814 1%20dxbw%20lam bl ch thumb 5814-1 < 20111017092154-808-499 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011O
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 7.03
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Black chert Member; Black chert; lbc, Sampled from DX-Bw
  • modified at 2019-12-13
5814 9%20bc%20type2 thumb 5814-9 < 20111018103441-590-043 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011P
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 53.24
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Komatiite-Rhyolite tuff member; Altered greenish volcanics
  • modified at 2019-12-13
3815 2 thumb 3815-2 < 20111018094416-660-672 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011K
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 72.39
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Komatiite-Rhyolite tuff member; Altered greenish volcanics
  • modified at 2019-12-13
3815 21 thumb 3815-21 < 20111018094419-737-948 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011L
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 202.69
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Black chert Member; Black chert
  • modified at 2019-12-13
Img 8579 thumb 3818-03 < 20111018094426-055-148 >pub
  • IGSN: IEDRM011Q
  • place: S20°37′51.1″, E117°3′22.5″ more
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: aliquot
  • quantity (g): 3.17
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Black chert Member; Black chert
  • modified at 2019-12-13
7716 54 thumb 7716-54 DXF < 20130926120314-878903 >pub
  • classification: sedimentary
  • physical-form: thin section
  • status: (unknown)
  • description: Dixon Island Formation; Komatiite-Rhyolite tuff member; Altered greenish volcanics
  • modified at 2019-12-12
name box-type global-id
binder of Tourmaline in a Mesoarchean pelagic hydrothermal system: Implications for the habitat of early life pub container 20191212092253-937724
name latitude longitude global-id
Dixon Island pub 20.6309 S 117.0562 E 20111017092919-097-316
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5813-18_T01-2_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-547650
5813-18_T01-2_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141302-130001
5813-18_T02-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-711441
5813-18_T02-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141303-210739
5813-18_T02-2_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-010687
5813-18_T02-2_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141303-726252
5813-18_T03-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-395117
5813-18_T03-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141303-118214
5813-18_T04-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-815640
5813-18_T04-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141303-550177
5813-18_T04-2_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-300785
5813-18_T04-2_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141303-051110
5813-18_T05-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-965835
5813-18_T05-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141304-766756
5813-18_T10-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-124100
5813-18_T10-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141304-900716
5813-18_T11-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-143171
5813-18_T11-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141304-547863
5813-18_T11-2_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-968109
5813-18_T11-2_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141304-813586
5813-18_T11-3_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-979357
5813-18_T11-3_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141305-929880
5813-18_T11-4_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-350372
5813-18_T11-4_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141305-168144
5813-18_T11-5_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-319964
5813-18_T11-5_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141305-172213
5813-18_T12-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-875088
5813-18_T12-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141305-408818
5813-18_T13-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-656805
5813-18_T13-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141305-616533
5813-18_T14-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-354706
5813-18_T14-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141306-845448
5813-18_T15-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-289775
5813-18_T15-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141306-383207
5813-18_T22-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-594279
5813-18_T22-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141306-650882
5813-18_T22-2_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-418172
5813-18_T22-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141306-909527
5813-18_T23-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-697925
5813-18_T23-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141307-302089
5813-18_T24-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141421-462471
5813-18_T24-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141307-187472
7718-20_T06-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-263161
7718-20_T06-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141307-262490
7718-20_T07-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-145690
7718-20_T07-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141307-316595
7718-20_T10-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-306588
7718-20_T10-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141308-220941
7718-20_T11-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-888961
7718-20_T11-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141308-173821
7718-20_T13-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-837309
7718-20_T13-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141308-017850
7718-20_T16-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-104919
7718-20_T16-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141308-097458
5814-1_T01-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-322849
5814-1_T01-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141308-840633
5814-1_T03-2_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-866695
5814-1_T03-2_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141308-174814
5814-1_T04-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-981637
5814-1_T04-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141309-104723
5814-1_T06-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-768756
5814-1_T06-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 10 20191212141309-563546
5814-1_T07-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-563652
5814-1_T07-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141309-056956
5814-1_T09-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-859075
5814-1_T09-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141309-382876
5814-1_T10-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-291495
5814-1_T10-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141310-192336
5814-1_T12-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-370325
5814-1_T12-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141310-572512
5814-9_T01-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-464848
5814-9_T01-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141310-776259
5814-9_T02-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-055049
5814-9_T02-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141310-916672
5814-9_T05-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-457861
5814-9_T05-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141311-470158
5814-9_T08-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-096008
5814-9_T08-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141311-625243
5814-9_T10-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-108877
5814-9_T10-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141311-454494
5814-9_T11-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-641949
5814-9_T11-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141311-939638
5814-9_T12-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-269357
5814-9_T12-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141311-589059
1009-17_T02-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-903905
1009-17_T02-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141312-146691
1009-17_T02-2_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-998852
1009-17_T02-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141312-636035
1009-17_T10-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141422-087306
1009-17_T10-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141312-059895
1009-17_T04-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-782157
1009-17_T04-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141312-680654
1009-17_T07-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-750997
1009-17_T07-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 10 20191212141312-288319
1009-17_T09-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-726594
1009-17_T09-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141313-334486
1009-17_T18-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-079240
1009-17_T18-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141313-862689
1009-17_T9-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-211612
1009-17_T9-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 5 20191212141313-495867
1009-17_T25-2_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-814224
1009-17_T25-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141313-500349
1009-17_T25-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-690980
1009-17_T25-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141313-641208
1009-17_T25-3_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-940312
1009-17_T25-3_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141313-202460
1009-17_T26-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-487793
1009-17_T26-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141314-710011
1009-17_T30-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-494810
1009-17_T30-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141314-068487
5813-18_T01-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150240-338842
5813-18_T01-2_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150240-667035
5813-18_T02-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150240-750022
5813-18_T02-2_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150240-075942
5813-18_T03-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150240-235056
5813-18_T04-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150240-531824
5813-18_T04-2_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150240-182369
5813-18_T05-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150240-531578
5813-18_T10-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150240-405221
5813-18_T11-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-044235
5813-18_T11-2_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-296781
5813-18_T11-3_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-079599
5813-18_T11-4_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-499397
5813-18_T11-5_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-913208
5813-18_T12-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-111588
5813-18_T13-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-495233
5813-18_T14-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-276136
5813-18_T15-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-218687
5813-18_T22-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-802293
5813-18_T22-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-038216
5813-18_T23-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150241-590147
5813-18_T24-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-026817
7718-20_T06-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-002263
7718-20_T07-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-711437
7718-20_T10-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-723338
7718-20_T11-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-443010
7718-20_T13-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-120685
7718-20_T16-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-446844
5814-1_T01-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-347937
5814-1_T03-2_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-509747
5814-1_T04-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-306340
5814-1_T06-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-402548
5814-1_T07-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150242-959509
5814-1_T09-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-958345
5814-1_T10-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-336732
5814-1_T12-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-947886
5814-9_T01-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-646856
5814-9_T02-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-560231
5814-9_T05-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-556985
5814-9_T08-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-444533
5814-9_T10-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-846618
5814-9_T11-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-053065
5814-9_T12-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-128725
1009-17_T02-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-476736
1009-17_T02-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-837829
1009-17_T10-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150243-561663
1009-17_T04-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-917184
1009-17_T07-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-672563
1009-17_T09-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-071839
1009-17_T18-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-165900
1009-17_T19-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-300748
1009-17_T25-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-302156
1009-17_T25-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-608048
1009-17_T25-3_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-652208
1009-17_T26-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-929951
1009-17_T30-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-840787
1007-1_T01-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-440111
1007-1_T01-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141314-372707
1007-1_T02-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-467001
1007-1_T02-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141314-705147
1007-1_T03-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-814219
1007-1_T03-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 10 20191212141315-478020
1007-1_T04-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-010643
1007-1_T04-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141315-015434
1007-1_T05-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-320725
1007-1_T05-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141315-649655
1007-1_T05-2_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-423126
1007-1_T05-2_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141315-131739
1007-1_T05-3_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-732084
1007-1_T05-3_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141316-852876
1007-1_T05-4_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-865848
1007-1_T05-4_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141316-440960
1007-1_T06-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-938826
1007-1_T06-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141316-935165
1007-1_T07-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-885175
1007-1_T07-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141316-951268
3815-21_T04-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-200916
3815-21_T04-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141316-916486
3815-21_T06-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-981706
3815-21_T06-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141316-988552
3815-21_T07-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141423-144118
3815-21_T07-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141317-708479
3815-21_T10-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-894071
3815-21_T10-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141317-038956
3815-21_T10-2_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-104219
3815-21_T10-2_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141317-306745
3815-21_T10-3_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-309684
3815-21_T10-3_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141317-356118
3815-21_T11-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-905830
3815-21_T11-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141317-742416
3815-21_T13-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-631427
3815-21_T13-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141318-821034
3815-21_T14-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-761776
3815-21_T14-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141318-996140
3815-21_T16-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-849618
3815-21_T16-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141318-078226
3815-21_T16-2_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-200082
3815-21_T16-2_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141318-061618
3815-21_T16-3_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-303299
3815-21_T16-3_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141318-952554
3815-21_T17-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-022878
3815-21_T17-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141319-327435
3815-21_T18-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-577633
3815-21_T18-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141319-680134
3815-21_T20-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-252670
3815-21_T20-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141319-675694
3815-21_T29-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-674097
3815-21_T29-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141319-681089
3815-21_T34-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-488697
3815-21_T34-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141319-720141
3815-2_T03-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-430652
3815-2_T03-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 10 20191212141320-038718
3815-2_T10-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-696480
3815-2_T10-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141320-548923
3815-2_T12-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-241597
3815-2_T12-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141320-076212
3815-2_T23-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-277910
3815-2_T23-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141320-565368
3815-2_T25-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-894634
3815-2_T25-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141320-934982
3815-2_T28-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-740110
3815-2_T28-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141321-446693
3815-2_T28-3_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141424-601875
3815-2_T28-3_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141321-932556
3815-2_T29-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-666611
3815-2_T29-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141321-970648
3815-2_T30-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-247061
3815-2_T30-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141321-118333
3815-2_T32-1_rim pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-913143
3815-2_T32-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141321-080496
3815-2_T39-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-489347
3815-2_T39-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141322-845393
3815-2_T40-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-599443
3815-2_T40-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141322-734164
3815-2_T41-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-981159
3815-2_T41-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 6 20191212141322-282957
3815-2_T42-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-079306
3815-2_T42-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141322-494190
3815-2_T43-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-227369
3815-2_T43-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141322-615992
3815-2_T46-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-963322
3815-2_T46-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141323-453288
3818-3_T02-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-132731
3818-3_T02-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141323-169274
3818-3_T06-2_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-043892
3818-3_T06-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141323-383645
3818-3_T08-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-485682
3818-3_T08-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141323-273874
3818-3_T13-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-723186
3818-3_T13-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141324-247664
3818-3_T14-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-374224
3818-3_T14-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141324-944121
7716-54_T01-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-954001
7716-54_T01-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141324-092557
7716-54_T02-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-152286
7716-54_T02-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141324-527930
7716-54_T03-1_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-384081
7716-54_T03-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 7 20191212141325-886237
7716-54_T04-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-977741
7716-54_T04-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141325-573824
7716-54_T05-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-878068
7716-54_T05-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 9 20191212141325-251453
7716-54_T06-1_core pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141425-146227
7716-54_T06-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141325-187469
7716-54_T09-2_skeletal pub SIMS Cameca ims-5f 1 20191212141426-744665
7716-54_T09-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 8 20191212141325-558714
1007-1_T01-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-518324
1007-1_T02-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-135453
1007-1_T03-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150244-964316
1007-1_T04-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-835012
1007-1_T05-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-905535
1007-1_T05-2_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-962576
1007-1_T05-3_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-318608
1007-1_T05-4_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-507165
1007-1_T06-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-771448
1007-1_T07-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-080929
3815-21_T04-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-212273
3815-21_T06-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-000574
3815-21_T07-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-875622
3815-21_T10-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-235731
3815-21_T10-2_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-573972
3815-21_T10-3_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150245-096178
3815-21_T11-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-073641
3815-21_T13-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-797778
3815-21_T14-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-779784
3815-21_T16-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-082945
3815-21_T16-2_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-601268
3815-21_T16-3_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-634237
3815-21_T17-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-016620
3815-21_T18-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-916437
3815-21_T20-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-121721
3815-21_T29-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-745150
3815-21_T34-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-939722
3815-2_T03-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150246-751924
3815-2_T10-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-889144
3815-2_T12-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-200952
3815-2_T23-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-353301
3815-2_T25-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-561223
3815-2_T28-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-945295
3815-2_T28-3_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-942267
3815-2_T29-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-524365
3815-2_T30-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-880145
3815-2_T32-1_rim pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-973490
3815-2_T39-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-896080
3815-2_T40-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-128947
3815-2_T41-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-776881
3815-2_T42-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150247-962022
3815-2_T43-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-767761
3815-2_T46-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-195948
3818-3_T02-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-354129
3818-3_T06-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-250938
3818-3_T08-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-985898
3818-3_T13-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-738400
3818-3_T14-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-299308
7716-54_T01-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-621848
7716-54_T02-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-894682
7716-54_T03-1_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-778579
7716-54_T04-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-957130
7716-54_T05-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-049808
7716-54_T06-1_core pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150248-132588
7716-54_T09-2_skeletal pub SEM-EDS JEOL JSM-7001F 2 20200323150249-711805
name spots global-id
caption ID rowname stone
Table 2. Chemical compositions of mica. With the exception of boron, abundances of elements are normalized to a total of 100cg/g pub 20191212145542-638525 major-mica (Ota et al., 2019) 56
Table 1-1. Chemical compositions of tourmaline.Elemental abundances are normalized to a total of 100 cg/g pub 20191212120738-799865 major (Ota et al., 2019) 56
Table 1-2. Chemical compositions of tourmaline.Elemental abundances are normalized to a total of 100 cg/g pub 20191212121958-218300 major (Ota et al., 2019) 55
manual
  • name
  • Ota, Tsutomu
  • Aihara, Yuhei
  • Kiyokawa, Shoichi
  • Tanaka, Ryoji
  • Nakamura, Eizo